Black-tailed deer are a smaller subspecies of mule deer. Their coat is slightly darker in color. They have a small rump patch and a tail that is mostly brown or black. Black-tailed deer occur along the entire coast of British Columbia, west of the summit of the Coast and Cascade Mountain ranges.
Visible differences between the Columbia black-tailed (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) and Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) are slight. Sitka black-tailed deer are slightly smaller and darker and are only found on the Queen Charlotte Islands, other islands in the Hecate Strait and along the coast of northern Vancouver Island. Columbia black-tailed deer are found on Vancouver Island and along the coastal territory from the International Boundary to Rivers Inlet.